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2022考研英语二阅读理解Text试题及答案解析

Section II Reading Comprehensio

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

On a recent sunny day, 13,000 chickens roam over Larry Brown’s 40 windswept acres in Shiner, Texas. Some rest in the shade of a parked car. Others drink water with the cows. This all seems random, but it’s by design, part of what the $6.1 billion U.S. egg industry bets will be its next big thing: climate-friendly eggs.

These eggs, which are making their debut now on shelves for as much as $8 a dozen, are still labeled organic and animal-friendly, but they’re also from birds that live on farms using regenerative agriculture—special techniques to cultivate rich soils that can trap greenhouse gases. Such eggs could be marketed as helping to fight climate change.

“I’m excited about our progress,” says Brown, who harvests eggs for Denver-based NestFresh Eggs and is adding more cover crops that draw worms and crickets for the chickens to eat. The birds’ waste then fertilizes fields. Such improvements “allow our hens to forage for higher-quality natural feed that will be good for the land, the hens, and the eggs that we supply to our customers.”

The egg industry’s push is the first major test of whether animal products from regenerative farms can become the next premium offering. In barely more than a decade, organic eggs went from being dismissed as a niche product in natural foods stores to being sold at Walmart. More recently there were similar doubts about probiotics and plant-based meats, but both have exploded into major supermarket categories. If the sustainable-egg rollout is successful, it could open the floodgates for regenerative beef, broccoli, and beyond.

Regenerative products could be a hard sell, because the concept is tough to define quickly, says Julie Stanton, associate professor of agricultural economics at Pennsylvania State University Brandywine. Such farming also brings minimal, if any, improvement to the food products (though some producers say their eggs have more protein).

The industry is betting that the same consumers paying more for premium attributes such as free-range, non-GMO, and pasture-raised eggs will embrace sustainability. Surveys show that younger generations are more concerned about climate change, and some of the success of plant-based meat can be chalked up to shoppers wanting to signal their desire to protect the environment. Young adults “really care about the planet,” says John Brunnquell, president of Egg Innovations. “They are absolutely altering the food chain beyond what I think even they understand what they’re doing.”

21. The climate-friendly eggs are produced ______.

[A] at a considerably low cost

[B] at the demand of regular shopper

[C] as a replacement for organic egg

[D] on specially designed farm

22. Larry Brown is excited about his progress in ______.

[A] reducing the damage of climate change

[B] accelerating the disposal of waste

[C] creating a sustainable system

[D] attracting customers to his products

23. The example of organic eggs is used in Paragraph 4 to suggest ______.

[A] the doubts over natural feed

[B] the setbacks in the egg industry

[C] the potential of regenerative product

[D] the promotional success of supermarket

24. It can be learned from the last paragraph that young people ______.

[A] are reluctant to change their diet

[B] are likely to buy climate-friendly egg

[C] are curious about new food

[D] are amazed at agriculture advance

25. John Brunnquell would disagree with Julie Stanton over regenerative product’s ______.

[A] market prospect

[B] standard definitio

[C] nutritional value

[D] moral implicatio

21. [D] on specially designed farm

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词climate-friendly eggs定位到第一段末句:This all seems random, but it’s by design, part of ... next big thing: climate-friendly eggs(这看起来随意,但其实是设计好的,是下一个大事件气候友好蛋的一部分)。其中This指的是第一段开头描述的养鸡农场景象。养鸡农场是设计好的,用于生产气候友好蛋,由此可知气候友好蛋是在specially designed farms(经过特别设计的农场)上生产的,所以本题选D。

22. [C] creating a sustainable system

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Larry Brown is excited about his progress定位到第三段①句,该句提到(Brown) is adding more cover crops that draw worms and crickets for the chickens to eat(Brown正在添加更多的覆盖作物来吸引蠕虫和蟋蟀给鸡吃)。结合②句The birds’ waste then fertilizes fields(然后鸡的排泄物可以给田地施肥)和③句中的Such improvements “allow our hens to forage for higher-quality natural feed ...”(这样的改进使我们的母鸡能够找到更高质量的天然食物)可知,C项creating a sustainable system(创造一个可持续的系统)是对①-③句的合理概括,所以本题选C。

23. [C] the potential of regenerative product

【解析】本题为例证题。例证题通常考查根据论据寻找论点的能力,论点一般在论据的前面。根据题干关键词organic eggs定位到第四段②句,该句为论据,其所要说明的事物为①句:whether animal products from regenerative farms can become the next premium offering(来自再生农场的动物产品能否成为下一个优质产品)。C项the potential of regenerative products(再生产品的潜力)是对①句中问题的合理概括,所以本题选C。

24. [B] are likely to buy climate-friendly egg

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干中的young people可先定位到最后一段中的②句:younger generations are more concerned about climate change(年轻一代更加关心气候变化)。结合③句中的Young adults “really care about the planet”(年轻人真的关心地球)和④句中的They are absolutely altering the food chain(他们绝对在改变食物链),可以判断年轻人很可能在从食物方面为改善气候和地球环境做贡献。B项are likely to buy climate-friendly eggs(可能购买气候友好蛋)是对②-④句的合理推断,所以本题选B。

25. [A] market prospect

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干中的John Brunnquell定位到最后一段中的③句,Brunnquell说年轻人真的关心地球。结合④句他说年轻人绝对在改变食物链,可见他认为年轻人可能通过消费气候友好蛋等再生产品来保护地球,对再生产品的市场前景是乐观的。再根据题干中的Julie Stanton定位到倒数第二段的①句,Stanton说Regenerative products could be a hard sell(再生产品可能要被强行推销),可见她对再生产品的市场前景是悲观的。因此这两人在再生产品的市场前景方面的观点是不一致的,A项market prospects(市场前景)准确指出了两人观点的分歧所在,所以本题选A。


Section II Reading Comprehensio

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 2

More Americans are opting to work well into retirement, a growing trend that threatens to up end the old workforce model.

One in three Americans who are at least 40 have or plan to have a job in retirement to prepare for a longer life, according to a survey conducted by Harris Poll for TD Ameritrade. Even more surprising is that more than half of “unretirees”–those who plan to work in retirement or went back to work after retiring–said they would be employed in their later years even if they had enough money to settle down, the survey showed.

Financial needs aren’t the only culprit for the “unretirement” trend. Other reasons, according to the study, include personal fulfillment such as staying mentally fit, preventing boredom or avoiding depression.

“The concept of retirement is evolving,” said Christine Russell, senior manager of retirement at TD Ameritrade. “It’s not just about finances. The value of work is also driving folks to continue working past retirement.”

One reason for the change in retirement patterns: Americans are living longer. The share of the population 65 and older was 16% in 2018, up 3.2% from the prior year, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. That’s also up 30.2% since 2010.

Because of longer life spans, Americans are also boosting their savings to preserve their nest eggs, the TD Ameritrade study showed, which surveyed 2,000 adults between 40 to 79. Six in 10 “unretirees” are increasing their savings in anticipation of a longer life, according to the survey. Among the most popular ways they are doing this, the company said, is by reducing their overall expenses, securing life insurance or maximizing their contributions to retirement accounts.

Unfortunately, many people who are opting to work in retirement are preparing to do so because they are worried about making ends meet in their later years, said Brent Weiss, a co-founder at Baltimore-based financial-planning firm Facet Wealth. He suggested that preretirees should speak with a financial adviser to set long-term financial goals.

“The most challenging moments in life are getting married, starting a family and ultimately retiring,” Weiss said. “It’s not just a financial decision, but an emotional one. Many people believe they can’t retire.”

26. The survey conducted by Harris Poll indicates that .

[A] over half of the retirees are physically fit for work

[B] the old workforce is as active as the younger one doe

[C] one in three Americans enjoy earlier retirement

[D] more Americans are willing to work in retirement

27. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that Americans tend to think that .

[A] retirement may cause problems for them

[B] boredom can be relieved after retirement

[C] the mental health of retirees is overlooked

[D] “unretirement”contributes to the economy

28. Retirement patterns are changing partly due to .

[A] labor shortage

[B] population growth

[C] longer life expectancy

[D] rising living cost

29. Many retirees are increasing their savings by .

[A] investing more in stock

[B] taking up odd jo

[C] getting well-paid work

[D] spending le

30. With regard to retirement, Brent Weiss thinks that many people are .

[A] unprepared

[B] unafraid

[C] disappointed

[D] enthusiastic

【答案解析】

26. [D] more Americans are willing to work in retirement

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词The survey conducted by Harris Poll定位到第二段①句:One in three Americans who are at least 40 have or plan to have a job in retirement to prepare for a longer life。D项中的are willing to work in retirement(愿意在退休后工作)是对原文have or plan to have a job in retirement(已经或计划在退休后获得一份工作)的同义转述,所以本题选D。

27. [A] retirement may cause problems for them

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph 3定位到第三段,Americans tend to think that在第三段中没有对应内容,第三段整体分析了美国人选择在退休后继续工作的原因。①句说明经济需求不是唯一原因,②句列举了其他原因,诸如保持精神健康,避免无聊或沮丧,由此可反推,美国人认为退休会给自身带来此类问题,所以本题选A。

28. [C] longer life expectancy

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Retirement patterns are changing定位到第五段①句One reason for the change in retirement patterns: Americans are living longer。C项longer life expectancy(更长的预期寿命)为该句中Americans are living longer(美国人的寿命越来越长)的同义转述,所以本题选C。

29. [D] spending le

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词increasing their savings可定位到第六段①句Americans are also boosting their savings to preserve their nest eggs,及②句Six in 10 “unretirees” are increasing their savings in anticipation of a longer life,这两句都在描述美国人增加储蓄的事实,紧承的③句Among the most popular ways they are doing this, the company said, is by reducing their overall expenses提出了最受欢迎的方式之一减少总体开支,对应了D项,所以本题选D。

30. [A] unprepared

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词With regard to retirement,Brent Weiss定位到第七段①句Unfortunately, many people who are opting to work in retirement are preparing to do so because they are worried about making ends meet in their later years, said Brent Weiss。由该句because they are worried about making ends meet in their later years(因为他们担心晚年入不敷出)可推知,许多人并没有准备好退休,对应了A项,所以本题选A。


Section II Reading Comprehensio

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 3

We have all encountered them, in both our personal and professional lives. Think about the times you felt tricked or frustrated by a membership or subscription that had a seamless sign-up process but was later difficult to cancel. Something that should be simple and transparent can be complicated, intentionally or unintentionally, in ways that impair consumer choice. These are examples of dark patterns.

First coined in 2010 by user experience expert Harry Brignull, “dark patterns" is a catch-all term for practices that manipulate user interfaces to influence the decision-making ability of users. Brignull identifies 12 types of common dark patterns, ranging from misdirection and hidden costs to “roach motel”, where a user experience seems easy and intuitive at the start, but turns difficult when the user tries to get out.

In a 2019 study of 53,000 product pages and 11,000 websites, researchers found that about one in 10 employs these design practices. Though widely prevalent, the concept of dark patterns is still not well understood. Business and nonproft leaders should be aware of dark patterns and try to avoid the gray areas they engender.

Where is the line between ethical, persuasive design and dark patterns? Businesses should engage in conversations with IT, compliance, risk, and legal teams to review their privacy policy, and include in the discussion the customer/user experience designers and coders responsible for the company's user interface, as well as the marketers and advertisers responsible for sign-ups, checkout baskets, pricing, and promotions. Any or all these teams can play a role in creating or avoiding “digital deception.”

Lawmakers and regulators are slowly starting to address the ambiguity around dark patterns, most recently at the state level. In March, the California Attorney General announced the approval of additional regulations under the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that “ensure that consumers will not be confused or misled when seeking to exercise their data privacy rights.” The regulations aim to ban dark patterns- this means prohibiting companies from using "confusing language or unnecessary steps such as forcing them to click through multiple screens or listen to reasons why they shouldn’t opt out.”

As more states consider promulgating additional regulations, there is a need for greater accountability from within the business community. Dark patterns also can be addressed on a self-regulatory basis, but only if organizations hold themselves accountable, not just to legal requirements, but also to industry best practices and standard.

31. It can be learned from the first two paragraphs that dark patterns ______.

[A] improve user experience

[B] leak user information for profit

[C] undermine users’ decision-making

[D] remind users of hidden cost

32. The 2019 study on dark patterns is mentioned to show ______.

[A] their major flaw

[B] their complex desig

[C] their severe damage

[D] their strong presence

33. To handle digital deception, businesses should ______.

[A] listen to customer feedback

[B] talk with relevant team

[C] turn to independent agencie

[D] rely on professional training

34. The additional regulations under the CCPA are intended to ______.

[A] guide users through opt-out processe

[B] protect consumers from being tricked

[C] grant companies data privacy right

[D] restrict access to problematic content

35. According to the last paragraph, a key to coping with dark patterns is ______.

[A] new legal requirement

[B] businesses' self-discipline

[C] strict regulatory standards

[D] consumers' safety awarene

【答案】

31. [C] undermine users’ decision-making

32. [D] their strong presence

33. [B] talk with relevant team

34. [B] protect consumers from being tricked

35. [B] businesses' self-discipline


Section II Reading Comprehensio

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 4

Although ethics classes are common around the world, scientists are unsure if their lessons can actually change behavior; evidence either way is weak, relying on contrived laboratory tests or sometimes unreliable self-reports. But a new study published in Cognition found that, in at least one real-world situation, a single ethics lesson may have had lasting effects.

The researchers investigated one class session’s impact on eating meat. They chose this particular behavior for three reasons, according to study co-author Eric Schwitzgebel, a philosopher at the University of California, Riverside: students’ attitudes on the topic are variable and unstable, behavior is easily measurable, and ethics literature largely agrees that eating less meat is good because it reduces environmental harm and animal suffering. Half of the students in four large philosophy classes read an article on the ethics of factory-farmed meat, optionally watched an 11-minute video on the topic and joined a 50-minute discussion. The other half focused on charitable giving instead. Then, unknown to the students, the researchers studied their anonymized meal-card purchases for that semester—nearly 14,000 receipts for almost 500 students.

Schwitzgebel predicted the intervention would have no effect; he had previously found that ethics professors do not differ from other professors on a range of behaviors, including voting rates, blood donation and returning library books. But among student subjects who discussed meat ethics, meal purchases containing meat decreased from 52 to 45 percent—and this effect held steady for the study’s duration of several weeks. Purchases from the other group remained at 52 percent.

“That's actually a pretty large effect for a pretty small intervention,” Schwitzgebel says.

Psychologist Nina Strohminger at the University of Pennsylvania, who was not involved in the study, says she wants the effect to be real but cannot rule out some unknown confounding variable. And if real, she notes, it might be reversible by another nudge: “Easy come, easy go.”

Schwitzgebel suspects the greatest impact came from social influence—classmates or teaching assistants leading the discussions may have shared their own vegetarianism, showing it as achievable or more common. Second, the video may have had an emotional impact. Least rousing, he thinks, was rational argument, although his co-authors say reason might play a bigger role. Now the researchers are probing the specific effects of teaching style, teaching assistants’ eating habits and students’ video exposure. Meanwhile Schwitzgebel—who had predicted no effect—will be eating his words.

36. Scientists generally believe that the effects of ethics classes are ______.

[A] hard to determine

[B] narrowly interpreted

[C] difficult to ignore

[D] poorly summarized

37. Which of the following is a reason for the researchers to study meat-eating?

[A] It is common among students.

[B] It is a behavior easy to measure.

[C] It is important to students’ health.

[D] It is a hot topic in ethics classes.

38. Eric Schwitzgebel’s previous findings suggest that ethics professors ______.

[A] are seldom critical of their student

[B] are less sociable than other professor

[C] are not sensitive to political issue

[D] are not necessarily ethically better

39. Nina Strohminger thinks that the effect of the intervention is ______.

[A] permanent

[B] predictable

[C] uncertai

[D] unrepeatable

40. Eric Schwitzgebel suspects that the students’ change in behavior ______.

[A] can bring psychological benefit

[B] can be analyzed statistically

[C] is a result of multiple factor

[D] is a sign of self-development

【答案解析】

36. [A] hard to determine

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Scientists、ethics classes定位到第一段①句的前半句:Although ethics classes are common around the world, scientists are unsure if their lessons can actually change behavior。其中can actually change behavior(确实能够改变行为)指的就是题干中的effects(效果)。A项hard to determine(很难确定)是对①句中unsure(不确定的)的同义替换。所以本题选A。

37. [B] It is a behavior easy to measure.

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词reason定位到第二段②句:They chose this particular behavior for three reasons ...: students’ attitudes on the topic are variable and unstable, behavior is easily measurable, and ethics literature largely agrees that eating less meat is good ...。其中They指the researchers,this particular behavior指meat-eating。B项It is a behavior easy to measure(它是一种容易测量的行为)是对②句中behavior is easily measurable(行为是容易测量的)的同义替换。所以本题选B。

38. [D] are not necessarily ethically better

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词previous findings和ethics professors定位到第三段①句的后半句:he had previously found that ethics professors do not differ from other professors on a range of behaviors, including voting rates, blood donation ...。其中he指Eric Schwitzgebel, a range of behaviors指的是包括投票率、献血等在内的道德行为。D项are not necessarily ethically better(未必在道德上更好)是对①句中do not differ from other professors on a range of behaviors(在一系列行为上与其他教授并无不同)的合理概括。所以本题选D。

39. [C] uncertai

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Nina Strohminger和the effect定位到第四段②句:Psychologist Nina Strohminger ... says she wants the effect to be real but cannot rule out some unknown confounding variable。其中the effect指the effect of the intervention。C项uncertain(不确定的)是对②句中cannot rule out some unknown confounding variable(不能排除一些未知的混淆变量)的合理推断,即Nina Strohminger认为一些混淆变量可能和the intervention干预手段一起影响了实验结果,因此干预手段的效果是不确定的。所以本题选C。

40. [C] is a result of multiple factor

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Schwitzgebel suspects定位到第五段①句的前半句:Schwitzgebel suspects the greatest impact came from social influence,即导致学生行为变化的最大影响来自于社会影响。结合②句中的Second, the video may have had an emotional impact(第二,视频可能产生了情感方面的影响),以及③句中的Least rousing ... was rational argument(最不激动人心的是理性讨论),可知Schwitzgebel提到了社会影响、视频、理性讨论等多种影响因素。C项is a result of multiple factors(是多种因素的结果)是对①-③句中各种影响因素的合理概括。所以本题选C。

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